Islam Under Scrutiny by Ex-Muslims

Who Authored the Qur'an?: An Enquiry, Part 4

 

[ Part 1 - Part 2 - Part 3 - Part 4 ]

Appendix

When this essay was posted as a serialised circulation some readers requested me to show them the similarities between some verses of poet Zayd b. Amr b. Naufal and the verses of the Holy Qur'an. In this appendix I have chosen 20 thematic verses from Zayd's poetry and compared them with the verses of the Qur'an. You will notice how uncannily they resemble the likeness of Zayd's composition. Due to the repetitive nature of the Qur'anic verses many verses are quite similar to the chosen theme of Zayd's composition. This is why I also included a few other verses which are in close resemblance with Zayd's poetry. To keep the length of this appendix short I have quoted the full verses only in cases where the similarities are unusually close. For the other verses, I only included the main messages. You may consult the English translation of the Holy Qur'an to read the complete verses. Needless to say, I only cited a handful of verses. You may spend some time searching the Holy Qur'an for other verses which are closely alike to the verses of Zayd's poetry.


[Please note: Unless mentioned otherwise, the quoted verses from the Qur'an are from Abdullah Yusuf Ali's translation of the Holy Qur'an. Note also that the original translation of Yusuf Ali refers Allah as God. The internet version of this translation refers only Allah. My essay is based on the original version of Yusuf Ali's translation. You may click here to verify the verses quoted.]

Here are sample verses from Zayd's poetry: Ibn Ishaq (pp.100-101) Zayd b. 'Amr. B. Nufayl composed the following poem about leaving his people and the torment he received from them:

Am I to worship one lord or a thousand? If there are as many as you claim, I renounce  al-Lat and al-'Uzza both of them As any strong-minded person would. I will not worship al-'Uzza and her two daughters, Nor will I visit the two images of the Banu 'Amr. I will not worship Hubal' though he was our lord In the days when I had little sense. I wondered (for in the night much is strange Which in daylight is plain to the discerning), That God had annihilated many men Whose deeds were thoroughly evil And spared others through the piety of a people So that a little child could grow in manhood. A man may languish for a time and then recover As the branch of a tree revives after the rain. I serve my Lord the compassionate That the forgiving Lord may pardon my sin, So keep to the fear of God your Lord; While you hold to that you will not perish. You will see the pious living in gardens, While for the infidels hell fire is burning. Shamed in life, when they die Their breasts will contract in anguish.

Zayd also said: (143)

To God I give my praise and thanksgiving, A sure word that will not fail as long as time lasts, To the heavenly King - there is no God beyond Him And no lord can draw near to Him. Beware, O men, of what follows death! You can hide nothing from God.. Beware of putting another beside God, For the upright way has become clear. Merry I implore, others trust in jinn, But thou, my God, art our Lord and our hope. I am satisfied with thee, O God, as a Lord, And will not worship another God beside thee. Thou of thy goodness and mercy Didst send a messenger to Moses as a herald. Thou saidst to him, Go thou and Aaron, And summon Pharaoh the tyrant to run to God And say to him, 'Did you spread out this (earth) without support, Until it stood fast as it does?' Say to him 'Did you raise this (heaven) without support? What a fine builder then you were!' Say to him 'Did you set the moon in the middle thereof As a light to guide when night covered it?' Say to him, 'Who sent forth the sun by day So that the earth it touched reflected its splendour?' Say to him, 'Who planted seeds in the dust That herbage might grow and wax great? And brought forth its seeds in the head of the plant?'

Therein are signs for the understanding.

         Thou in thy kindness did deliver Jonah

Who spent nights in the belly of the fish.

Though I glorify thy name, I often repeat

'O Lord of creatures, bestow thy gifts and mercy upon me

And bless my sons and property.

[(143) Ibn Hisham's note (ibn Ishaq p.713): These verses really belong to an ode of Umayya b. Abu'l-Salt, except for the first two, the fifth, and the last verse. The second half of the first verse does not come via I.I.]

Here is another sample verse of Zayd b. Amr (ibn Ishaq, p.102):

And Zayd said:

I submit myself to him to whom

The earth which bears mighty rocks is subject.

He spread it out and when He saw it was settled

Upon the waters, He fixed the mountains on it.

I submit myself to Him to whom clouds which bear

Sweet water are subject

When they are borne along to a land

They obediently pour copious rain upon it.

After Zayd b. Amr was killed, his comrade Waraqa b. Naufal b. Asad (i.e., Khadijah's cousin brother) composed this elegy over him (ibn Ishaq, p.103):

You were altogether on the right path Ibm 'Amr,

You have escaped hell's burning oven

By serving the one and only God

And abandoning vain idols.

And by attaining the religion which you sought

Not being unmindful of the unity of your Lord

You have reached a noble dwelling

Wherein you will rejoice in your generous treatment.

You will meet there the friend of God, (3)

Since you were not a tyrant ripe for hell,

For the mercy of God reaches men,

Though they be seventy valleys deep below the earth (146)

Footnote (3): The district of which 'Amman was the capital.

Ibn Hisham's note (146): The first two verses of this poem are attributed to Umayya b. Abu al-Salt and the last verse occurs in one of his odes. The words 'vain idols' have not I.I..'a authority.

[The reason of my quoting the elegy of Waraqa is to demonstrate the strong camaraderie between Zayd b. Amr and Waraqa which had propelled Muhammad to develop a deep respect and appreciation of what Zayd b. Amr sincerely believed, resolutely stood and eventually died for. He was determined to emulate Zayd b. Amr, the great confidante' of Waraqa and hence Khadijah. Remember? Khadijah was Muhammad's first wife and his only support.  -Abul Kasem]

Here are the comparisons of Zayd's verses with the verses of the Holy Qur'an:

1. Zayd wrote: Am I to worship one lord or a thousand?

The Holy Quran says:

Muslims' God is one God (that is Allah only); those who do not believe in the hereafter are proud... 16:22

016.022  Your Allah is one Allah: as to those who believe not in the Hereafter, their hearts refuse to know, and they are arrogant.

Other similar verses in the Holy Qur'an:

Cannot set up religious leaders and scholars as Lords; God had commanded to worship only one God... 9:31

None can change the words of God... 10:64

Qur'an teaches to worship none but God and Muhammad is a Warner who brought glad tidings... 11:2

Do not worship two gods; there is only one God, worship Him alone...16:51

All messengers were inspired to worship one God only... 21:25

There is only one God and all should bow to Islam...21:108

There is only one God... 37:4

Muhammad is a warner; there is no God but one supreme... 38:65

Muhammad's religion is devoted to God alone... 39:14

Muhammad is commanded to worship God only... 39:11

Can't have many conflicting partners; one should serve only one master (this verse is used by the Qur'an only followers e.g. Rashad Khalifa)... 39:29

God is one and the only...112:1

 

2. Zayd wrote: Not worshipping al-Lat, al-Uzza and her two daughters

The Holy Qur'an says:

All prophets were, at times inspired by Satan (this is the abrogating verse for 53:19-20 dealing with Al-Lat, al-Uzza and Manat were goddesses (this verse is believed to be inspired by Satan and so abrogated by 22:52)...53:19-23

053.019 Have ye seen Lat. and 'Uzza,
053.020 And another, the third (goddess), Manat?
053.021 What! for you the male sex, and for Him, the female?
053.022 Behold, such would be indeed a division most unfair!
053.023 These are nothing but names which ye have devised,- ye and your fathers,- for which Allah has sent down no authority (whatever). They follow nothing but conjecture and what their own souls desire!- Even though there has already come to them Guidance from their Lord!

Other similar verses from the Holy Qur'an:

All prophets were, at times inspired by Satan (this is the abrogating verse for 53:19-20 dealing with goddesses al-Lat, Uzza, Manat)...22:52

False daughters were assigned to God...52:39

God is not of female sex...53:21

 

3. Zayd wrote: God annihilated many men whose deeds were thoroughly evil

The Holy Qur'an says:

God had annihilated many generations before Muhammad's generation... 6:6

006.006 See they not how many of those before them We did destroy?- generations We had established on the earth, in strength such as We have not given to you - for whom We poured out rain from the skies in abundance, and gave (fertile) streams flowing beneath their (feet): yet for their sins We destroyed them, and raised in their wake fresh generations (to succeed them).

Other similar verses from the Holy Qur'an:

God annihilated many communities while they were awake or asleep... 7:4

God annihilated many generations and made the current generation to inherit earth just to test them... 10:13-14

God has annihilated many generations before whom no one can trace... 19:98

God has destroyed many previous generations... 20:128

In the past, God had punished many a population...22:48

God destroyed all the community of the unbelievers, yet they disbelieve... 21:6

God utterly destroyed many populations before...21:11

God completely wiped out the run away transgressors... 21:15

In the past, God destroyed many population, made wells idle, and neglected and destroyed lofty and well built castles...22:45

God had destroyed many generations before... 32:26

God destroyed many generations before; their call for help was in vain... 38:3

God annihilated those powerful people... 43:8

In the past God seized and punished people for disobeying their messengers... 40:22

God had annihilated many communities before Muhammad was sent... 46:27

In the past, God had annihilated many a powerful generations... 50:36

God had annihilated the earlier generations... 77:16

The past disbelievers of God received a severe retribution from God... 64:5

In the past God had severely punished the past unbelievers... 67:18

 

4. Zayd wrote: And spared the others... ...

The Holy Qur'an says:

God may punish or redeem the others... 9:106

009.106 There are (yet) others, held in suspense for the command of Allah, whether He will punish them, or turn in mercy to them: and Allah is All-Knowing, Wise.

Other similar verse from the Holy Qur'an:
God has a predetermined plan for the unbelievers, that's why He does not annihilate them immediately... 20:130

5. Zayd wrote: ... ... the branch of a tree revives after the rain

The Holy Qur'an says:

God sends down rain from sky for plants to grow and gives life to the dead land (part of water cycle?)...50:9-11

050.009 And We send down from the sky rain charted with blessing, and We produce therewith gardens and Grain for harvests;
 050.010 And tall (and stately) palm-trees, with shoots of fruit-stalks, piled one over another;-
 050.011 As sustenance for (Allah's) Servants;- and We give (new) life therewith to land that is dead: Thus will be the Resurrection.

 Other similar verses from the Holy Qur'an:

In the creation of the heavens and the earth, in the alternation of the night and the day, in the sailing of the ships through the ocean, the rain from the sky, and the springing of vegetation on a dead earth, the scattered beasts, the change of winds and clouds are the signs of God...2:164

God produces rain from the sky to grow agricultural products... 6:99

God sends the winds to carry the heavily laden clouds to fall as rain in a dead land to produce agriculture (part of water cycle?)...7:57

God sends the fertile wind to cause the rain that makes the vegetation to grow (part of water cycle?)...15:22

The rain, the plants on earth and the hay are the signs of God; he is all-powerful... 18:45

God sends down rains and is cognizant... 22:63

God sent down rain from the sky; rain soaked in soil, then drains off ... 23:18

God drives rain to perched soils to feed the cattle...32:27

God sends down rain from the sky and causes the spring to flow and causes the vegetation to grow (part of water cycle?)...39:21

With rain God gives life to a barren earth, He can also give life to the dead...43:11

God revives a land after it had died... 57:17
 

6. Zayd wrote: So keep to the fear of God... ... , hold to that you will not perish

The Holy Qur'an says:

Fear God and God alone...2:41

002.041 And believe in what I reveal, confirming the revelation which is with you, and be not the first to reject Faith therein, nor sell My Signs for a small price; and fear Me, and Me alone.

Other similar verses from the Holy Qur'an:

Can't die except as a Muslim; fear Allah as He should be feared ...3:102

Those who fear God dwell in heaven permanently...3:198

Fear God and don not create trouble in an ordered world... 7:56

God sent earthquake to almost topple the mountains as a warning to fear God...7:171

The true believers' heart tremble with fear at the mention of God and their faith is strengthened whenever they hear the recitation of the Qur'an... 8:2

Believers should fear God and follow the truthful believers... 9:119

Fear God for the terrible judgment day...22:1

A true believer's heart trembles in fear when he hears the name of God... 22:35

Repent and fear God... 30:31

Those who have knowledge truly fear God... 35:28

God's earth is spacious; fear God; He is on the side of the good doers... 39:10

Fear God as much you are able to do so...64:16

There is a great reward for those who fear the unseen God...67:12

Qur'an is a message for the God-fearing people... 69:47

If you fear and obey God, then He will forgive you...71:3-4

He who gives charity and fears God is the best...92:5-6

 

7. Zayd wrote: ... ... .pious living in gardens... ..for the infidels hell fire is burning

The Holy Qur'an says:

Garden will be brought to righteous and hell fire for the evil doers... 26:90-95

026.090 "To the righteous, the Garden will be brought near,
026.091 "And to those straying in Evil, the Fire will be placed in full view;

026.092 "And it shall be said to them: 'Where are the (gods) ye worshipped-
026.093 "'Besides Allah? Can they help you or help themselves?'
026.094 "Then they will be thrown headlong into the (Fire),- they and those straying in Evil,

026.095 "And the whole hosts of Iblis together.


Other similar verses from the Holy Qur'an:

Their reward is the gardens of eternity, they will dwell therein forever; God is pleased with them and they are pleased with God and there is a great reward for fearing God...98:8

For the righteous there are gardens in nearness to God...3:15

Gardens with rivers flowing underneath for the believers...3:136

The believers will profit by following Islam; they will be rewarded with gardens with river flowing underneath, eternal home for the believers...5:119

God promises paradise (beautiful mansions in the garden of Eden) to the believing men and women... 9:72

Believers will enter the gardens of Eden together with their righteous parents, spouses and children; angels will accompany the believers who enter there...13:23

For the believers...gardens beneath which flows river...13:35

Believers will be admitted to the gardens beneath which river flows; they will be adorned with bracelets of gold and pearls and their garments will be of silk...22.23

God will be the supreme judge on the resurrection day; garden of delight is for the believers... 22:56

Fire will be placed in full view... 26:91

Garden will be brought to righteous... 26:90

Gardens as hospitable homes are for the believers...32:19

Unbelievers will be in the abode of fire; they will be forced back there if they try to escape...32:20

The believers will be in gardens of eternity; they will be adorned with bracelets of gold and pearls and their garments will be of silk... 35:33

There is un-ending fire of hell for rejecting God; they will not die; penalty for them will not be lightened... 35:36

For the believers there will be garden of joy, cool shades of wood, reclining on thrones, all fruits are for enjoyment, peace from God... 36:55-58

Sinners will be set apart; they will embrace fire... 36:60-64

For the sincere and devoted servants of God there will be sustenance (in Paradise), fruits, honor, dignity, garden of felicity, they will face each other on thrones, pass around a cup from a clear flowing fountain, crystal white delicious drink, no headache, no intoxication, chaste women... 36:41-50

Believers will see the unbelievers being roasted in fire... 37:51-55

God sent an Arabic Qur'an to warn. Some home will be in garden and some will be in blazing fire...42:7

The believers and their wives enter garden, pass round dishes and goblets of gold, everything all the souls could desire, all that eyes could delight in...43:70-72

The sinners will be punished; they will remain in hell forever...43:74

Believers will be admitted to the Gardens; the unbelievers will enjoy this world like cattle eats and they will have their abode in fire...47:12

For the believers there will be gardens to dwell in, beneath which rivers flow; their sins remitted...48:5

The righteous will be in the garden of happiness ...52:17

The righteous will be in the midst of gardens and rivers and in the presence of an omnipotent sovereign...54:55

Believers will recline on carpets with inner linings of rich brocade; the fruits of the garden will be nearby...55:54

In return for fighting for God, He forgives sins and promises beautiful mansions in the gardens of eternity...61:12

For the believers, God will remove ills (sins) from them; give them gardens to dwell in there forever under which rivers flow...64:9

The disbelievers will live in hell fire for ever...64:10

There are the gardens of delight in the presence of God...68:34

God has fetters to bind the unbelievers and then burn them in fire and feed them with food that is hard to swallow...73:12

For the disbelievers, God has prepared shackles, chains and a blazing hellfire... 76:4

For the believers there will be gardens...85:11

They will be on a high garden...88:10

 

8. Zayd wrote: ... ..breasts will contract in anguish

The Holy Quran says:

God opens the breasts of those who accept Islam; those who strays gets their breasts contracted, as if climbing in the air and gasping for breath...6:125 

006.125 Those whom Allah (in His plan) willeth to guide,- He openeth their breast to Islam; those whom He willeth to leave straying,- He maketh their breast close and constricted, as if they had to climb up to the skies: thus doth Allah (heap) the penalty on those who refuse to believe. 

Other similar verses from the Holy Qur'an:

God will confuse the hearts and eyes of the disbelievers... 6:110

Through the narration of the previous disbelievers of their prophets, God shows the example that He seals the heart of the disbelievers... 7:101

God seals the hearts of the transgressors...10:74

No soul can believe except by the will of God; He will place doubt and obscurity in the heart of unbelievers...10:100

God seals up hearts of those who do not understand...30:59

Hearts will be in agitation...79:8

The unbeliever's heart is shielded by his by sins... 83:14

 

9. Zayd wrote: ... ... ... there is no God beyond Him

The Holy Qur'an says:

There is only one God and all should bow to Islam...21:108

021.108 Say: "What has come to me by inspiration is that your Allah is One Allah: will ye therefore bow to His Will (in Islam)?"

There is no God but He, the supreme... 27:26

027.026 "Allah!- there is no god but He!- Lord of the Throne Supreme!"

Other similar verses from the Holy Qur'an:

Every life returns to God, the ultimate judge... 6:62

There is no similitude for God... 16:74

Can't set up any God beside Allah... 17:22

If there were gods besides God, there would be chaos... 21:22

All messengers were inspired to worship one God only... 21:25

Sovereignty belongs to God; there is no God but Him. Everything will perish except God's face... 28:88

No helper or protector besides God... 29:22

There is no God but He... 35:3

There is only one God... 37:4

Muhammad is a warner; there is no God but one supreme... 38:65

God is the most high, the most great...42:4

God is the only deity in the heavens and the only deity on earth...43:84

God is the Lord of the heavens and the earth and everything between them... 44:7

God is the first and the last (alpha and omega)...57:3

All Kingships is with God... 67:1

God is one and the only...112:1

None is like God...112:4

 

10. Zayd wrote: You can hide nothing from God

The Holy Qur'an says:

God has a clear record of everything; nothing is hidden from him... 27:75

027.075 YUSUFALI: Nor is there aught of the unseen, in heaven or earth, but is (recorded) in a clear record.
PICKTHAL: And there is nothing hidden in the heaven or the earth but it is in a clear Record.
SHAKIR: And there is nothing concealed in the heaven and the earth but it is in a clear book.

Other similar verses from the Holy Qur'an:

God knows what you hide or reveal...3:29

The hypocrites pretend to be believers when they meet Muhammad but they are actually against the faith; God knows all that they hide...5:61

Can't hide from God: He knows the innermost secrets of our hearts...11:5

God knows what is secret and what is hidden...20:7

God knows what is in your open speech and what you hide in your heart...21:110

God knows all hidden and open secrets; He has no partner... 23:92

God knows everything that you hide and reveal... 27:74

God is the knower of all things hidden and open...32:6

God knows what the unbelievers hide and what they disclose... 36:75

God knows all things secret and open...59:22

God knows the innermost secret of everyone... 64:4

Whether declared or secret, God is aware of our innermost thoughts... 67:13

 

11. Zayd wrote: ... the upright way has become clear

The Holy Qur'an says:

No compulsion in religion; the truth is clear from error...2:256

002.256  Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from Error: whoever rejects evil and believes in Allah hath grasped the most trustworthy hand-hold, that never breaks. And Allah heareth and knoweth all things.

Other similar verses from the Holy Qur'an:

Qur'an is a clear revelation; the disbelievers are evil people...2:99

The Qur'an is a clear book...5:15

The Qur'an makes things clear...15:1

Qur'an is a clear sign from God...22:16

God has made things clear in the Qur'an and He guides to a straight path whomever He wills... 24:46

The Qur'an makes things clear... 26:1

Muhammad does not recite any poetry; the Qur'an is a clear message... 36:69

God has sent down clear revelations (Qur'an)... 57:9

The straight and the right religion involves the worshipping of God sincerely, be true to faith, establish regular prayers and practice regular charity (Zakat)...98:5

 

12. Zayd wrote: And will not worship another God beside thee

The Holy Qur'an says:

Can't worship anything other than God; Islam is the only right religion...12:40

012.040  "If not Him, ye worship nothing but names which ye have named,- ye and your fathers,- for which Allah hath sent down no authority: the command is for none but Allah: He hath commanded that ye worship none but Him: that is the right religion, but most men understand not..

Other similar verses from the Holy Qur'an:

God's covenant with the Children of Israel (i.e., the Jews) were: 1. to worship God only 2. honor parents 3. regard relatives, orphans and the poor 3. treat people amicably 4. observe contact prayers 5. give obligatory charity 5. no shedding of blood 6. not to evict each other from homes...2:83-84

It is not possible for the people of the Book to worship any idol other than God alone... 3:79

Worship God alone; you will ultimately go back to Him... 7:29

Worship only God privately and publicly... 7:55

Cannot set up religious leaders and scholars as lords; God had commanded to worship only one God... 9:31

Muhammad does not worship that others worship; he worships only God... 10:104

Qur'an teaches to worship none but God and Muhammad is a Warner who brought glad tidings... 11:2

God sent apostle to every people; Muhammad had been commanded to worship God and nothing else; God guided some but made errors on some...16:36

Do not worship two gods; there is only one God, worship Him alone...16:51

All messengers were inspired to worship one God only... 21:25

Muhammad is commanded to worship God only... 39:11

The believers must worship God even if the disbelievers dislike it... 40:14

Muhammad is forbidden to worship any idol; commanded to worship God only... 40:66

Muhammad is to worship only God; he has neither power to harm nor to guide people... 72:20-21

The entire Sura Kafiirun (Sura 109)

 

13. Zayd wrote: ... ... ... a messenger to Moses as a herald

The Holy Qur'an writes:

They (Moses and his servant) met God's angel there (at the junction of the two seas)... 18:65

018.065 So they found one of Our servants, on whom We had bestowed Mercy from Ourselves and whom We had taught knowledge from Our own Presence.

018.065 So they found one of Our servants, on whom We had bestowed Mercy from Ourselves and whom We had taught knowledge from Our own Presence.

 
Other similar verses from the Holy Qur'an:

God spoke to Moses and chose him as His messenger among his people... 7:144

God spoke to Moses directly...4:164

God spoke directly with Moses and he was the first to believe in Islam...7:143

Moses sought the permission of the angel to follow him to learn from him... 18:66

God sent Moses and his brother Aaron with His revelation and a profound proof... 23:45

 God chose Moses as a messenger and told him to worship Him alone... 20:14

God sent Moses the Book and made Aaron, his brother his assistant (minister)... 25:35


14. Zayd wrote: Say to Pharaoh: Did you spread out this earth without supports... ... ... .?

The Holy Qur'an says:

God raised heavens without pillars (first?), (then?) established His throne, (then?) subjected the sun and (then?) the moon to run their courses; He regulates all affairs...13:2

013.002 Allah is He Who raised the heavens without any pillars that ye can see; is firmly established on the throne (of authority); He has subjected the sun and the moon (to his Law)! Each one runs (its course) for a term appointed. He doth regulate all affairs, explaining the signs in detail, that ye may believe with certainty in the meeting with your Lord.


Other similar verses from the Holy Qur'an:

God created heavens without pillars (supports) so that you can see and He set mountains firm for the earth not to shake; He set scattered beasts of every kind in pairs...31:10

God agreed to appoint Aaron, Moses' brother to be his assistant and assured Moses's victory against the Pharaoh... 28:35

God asked Moses to go to Pharaoh to redeem him... 79:17-19


15. Zayd wrote: ... ... .set the moon in the middle thereof As a light to guide when night covered it... ...

The Holy Qur'an says:

God made the moon a light (i.e. moon gives light) in the midst of heavens and the sun a lamp...71:15-16

071.015 "'See ye not how Allah has created the seven heavens one above another,

071.016 "'And made the moon a light in their midst, and made the sun as a (Glorious) Lamp?
 

Other similar verses from the Holy Qur'an:

God made the constellations in the sky and put a lamp (the sun) and a shining moon (i.e., the moon gives light)... 25:61

God made night and day, the sun and the moon are subject to man...16:12

God created the sun and the moon for day and night and for the reckoning of time... 6:96

God made the sun a shining glory and the moon a beauty and having its stages; the sun and the moon are used to reckon the years and time... 10:5

The sun and the moon are subject to courses...14:33

God merges night into day and subjected the sun and the moon running its courses...31:29

God has appointed mansions (or stages) for the moon till she returns like an old weathered palm leaf... 36:39

The sun is not permitted to catch up with the moon; the night cannot outstrip the day... 36:40

 

16. Zayd wrote: Who planted seeds in the dust that herbage might grow... ...

The Holy Qur'an says:

God has created His signs in plant and vegetable... 13:4

013.004 And in the earth are tracts (diverse though) neighbouring, and gardens of vines and fields sown with corn, and palm trees - growing out of single roots or otherwise: watered with the same water, yet some of them We make more excellent than others to eat. Behold, verily in these things there are signs for those who understand!

It is not in the power of men to cause the growth of plants and trees... 27:60

027.060 Or, Who has created the heavens and the earth, and Who sends you down rain from the sky? Yea, with it We cause to grow well-planted orchards full of beauty of delight: it is not in your power to cause the growth of the trees in them. (Can there be another) god besides Allah? Nay, they are a people who swerve from justice. 

Other similar verses from the Holy Qur'an:

The rain, the plants on earth and the hay are the signs of God; he is all-powerful... 18:45

God sends down rain from sky for plants to grow and gives life to the dead land (part of water cycle?)...50:9-11

God has germinated us like plants from earth...71:17


17. Zayd wrote: Therein are signs for the understanding

The Holy Qur'an says

The Qur'an is full of blessings and book of signs; only men of understanding can resolve the genuine doubts in Qur'an... 38:29

038.029 (Here is) a Book which We have sent down unto thee, full of blessings, that they may mediate on its Signs, and that men of understanding may receive admonition.

Other similar verses from the Holy Qur'an:

In the creation of the heavens and the earth, in the alternation of the night and the day, in the sailing of the ships through the ocean, the rain from the sky, and the springing of vegetation on a dead earth, the scattered beasts, the change of winds and clouds are the signs of God...2:164

The earth and the alternation of night and day, are the signs of God...3:190

The alternation of night and day and all that on earth are the signs of God...10:6

The rain, the plants on earth and the hay are the signs of God; He is all-powerful... 18:45

Signs of God is in cattle of pastures; God created human from earth, they will end in earth and will be brought out in earth again...20:54

On earth there are signs of faith...51:20

 

18. Zayd wrote: ....deliver Jonah who spent nights in the belly of fish

The Holy Qur'an says:

God saved Jonah (Dhan Nun) from the darkness (belly of a big fish)... 21:87-88

021.087 And remember Zun-nun, when he departed in wrath: He imagined that We had no power over him! But he cried through the deptHs of darkness, "There is no god but thou: glory to thee: I was indeed wrong!"

021.088 So We listened to him: and delivered him from distress: and thus do We deliver those who have faith.

Other similar verses from the Holy Qur'an:

Because of his rebellion, a big fish swallowed Jonah... 37:142

But Jonah repented and prayed to God and God rescued him from the big fish... 37:143-144

God made the fish throw Jonah into a desert... 37:145

 

19. Zayd wrote: The earth ... ... .spread out... ..fixed mountains on it

The Holy Qur'an says:

God made earth spread out like a carpet (flat), set mountains firm...15:19

015.019 And the earth We have spread out (like a carpet); set thereon mountains firm and immovable; and produced therein all kinds of things in due balance.

Other similar verses from the holy Qur'an

God spread out the earth (flat), set mountains, put night as a veil...13:3

God set up mountains firm lest the earth shake...16:15

God made earth like a carpet spread out (flat); God created diverse pairs of plants...20:53

God set mountains high lest the earth shake with them and laid the highways to guide people...21:31

God made the earth to live in; He made the rivers on earth, set the immovable mountains and the separating waters ... 27:61

The earth is like a carpet spread out (flat) and God built roads and channels in it...43:10

God spread out earth (flat) and set mountains standing firm...50:7

God made mountains standing firm and provided sweet water...77:27

God put mountains as pegs (or stabilizers) to hold the earth in place...78:7

The earth is spread out (flat)...88:20

God established mountains firmly fixed...79:32

Mountains are fixed firmly...79:32

Mountains are set firm by the power of God...88:19

 

20. Zayd wrote: ... .clouds which bear sweet water... .

The Holy Qur'an says:

God sends down water from the clouds to grow vegetables and gardens..78:14-16

078.014 And do We not send down from the clouds water in abundance,

078.015 That We may produce therewith corn and vegetables,

078.016 And gardens of luxurious growth?


Other similar verses from the Holy Qur'an:

God sends the winds to carry the heavily laden clouds to fall as rain in a dead land to produce agriculture (part of water cycle?)...7:57

God moves clouds and causes rain and snow... 24:43

God sends winds, winds raise the cloud; God spreads the clouds in sky, breaks clouds in fragments until rain drops (part of water cycle?)...30:48

God made mountains standing firm and provided sweet water...77:27

 



Bibliography

"The Holy Qur'an," the internet version of three English translations can be read at: http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/reference/reference.html

Ali, Abdullah, Yusuf, "The Holy Qur'an: Translation and Commentary," Amana Corp., Brentwood, Maryland, 1983.

al-Bukhari, Muhammad b. Ismail, "Sahi Bukhari," translated in English by Dr Muhammad Muhsin Khan: [http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/hadithsunnah/bukhari/]

Muslim, Abu al-Hussain b. al-Hajjaj al-Qushairi, "Sahi Muslim," translated in English by Abdul Hamid Siddiqui: [http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/hadithsunnah/muslim/]

Hughes, Patrick Thomas, "A Dictionary of Islam;" first published in 1886; latest reprint by Kazi Publications In., Chicago, 1994. 

"The Origins of the Koran,"edited by Ibn Warraq, Prometheus Books, Amherst, New York, 1998.

Ibn Ishaq, Muhammad b. Yasr, "Sirat Rasul Allah,"  translated in English by A. Guillaume; first by published by Oxford University Press, London in 1955; fifteenth reprint by Oxford University Press, Karachi, Pakistan, 2001.

Ibn Sa'd, Abu Abd Allah Muhammad, "Kitab al-Tabaqat," vol i, translated in English by S. Moinul Haq, Kitab Bhavan; 1784, Kalam Mahal, Daraya Ganj, New Delhi, India, 1972.

Ibn Sa'd, Abu Abd Allah Muhammad, "Kitab al-Tabaqat," vol ii, translated in English by S. Moinul Haq, Kitab Bhavan; 1784, Kalam Mahal, Daraya Ganj, New Delhi, India, 1972.

Ibn al-Kalbi, Hisham, "The Book of Idols (Kitab Al-Asnam)," translated in English by Nabih Amin Faris, Princeton University Press, 1952. [http://www.answering-islam.org/Books/Al-Kalbi/index.htm]

al-Misri, Ahmed ibn Naqib, "Raliance of the Traveller ('Umdat al-Salik)," revised edition, translated by Nuh Ha Mim Keller, Amana Publications, Bettsville, Maryland, 1999.

 T H E   E N D


Abul Kasem is an Bengali ex-Muslim and academic. He has contributed in Leaving Islam - Apostates Speak Out and Beyond Jihad - Critical Voices from Inside and Why We Left Islam.. He has also written extensively on Islam in various websites and is the author of five e-Books: A Complete Guide to Allah, Root of Terrorism ala Islamic Style, Sex and Sexuality in Islam, Who Authored the Quran? and Women in Islam. Mr. Kasem leaves in Sydney, Australia. He can be contacted at abul88@hotmail.com.

 
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