Islam Under Scrutiny by Ex-Muslims

Who Authored the Qur'an?: An Enquiry, Part 3

[ Part 1 - Part 2 - Part 3 - Part 4 ]

The Sabeans

W. St. Clair-Tisdall [31]  writes that the Sabeans inhabited Syria. They were the followers of Seth and Idris. Sabeans fasted for 30 days from night to sunrise, observed Eid and prayed for the dead without prostration. Muhammad simply copied their system of fasting (only change made was fasting from dawn to dusk) and retained the celebration of Eid and the prayer for the dead in exactly the same fashion as the Sabeans. Thus the rules on fasting as prescribed in verses 2:183-187 were actually adapted from the Holy Scriptures of the Sabeans. In fact, the Qur'an itself confirms that the system of fasting was a copy-cat from other faith - of course, remaining coy about which religious scripture Muhammad copied from. Here is verse 2:183 that says that the Islamic system of fasting is the mimicry of the other faith (Sabeans, of course):

002.183 O ye who believe! Fasting is prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before you, that ye may (learn) self-restraint,-

The Sabeans possessed a book called 'Pages of Seth. They observed 7 prayers a day 5 of which were at the same hours as chosen by Muhammad. They also venerated Ka'ba. Muhammad, most likely, learned about the Holy Scripture of the Sabeans from Bahira, the monk and Salman, the Persian; because both of them had spent a considerable amount of time in Syria and were well aware about the sources, rituals and the religious doctrine of the Sabeans. Muhammad simply incorporated those in the Qur'an and passing them as Allah's dicta.

On the Sabeans, the Dictionary of Islam [32] writes that they worshipped the stars secretly but openly professed to be Christians. Others say that they were of the religion of Sabi, the son of Seth, the son of Adam. Some say they were of the religion of Noah. Their Qiblah was towards the south, from whence the wind blows.

No doubt, after learning about the Sabeans Muhammad was profoundly impressed by their religion and hastened to incorporate some of their rituals in Islam. He regarded them as the true believers of Allah. In fact, the Dictionary Islam writes [33] that the Arabs used to call Muhammad as Sabi - he who has departed from the religion of the Quraysh. The Qur'an mentions them 3 times in the following verses:

 002.062 Those who believe (in the Qur'an), and those who follow the Jewish (scriptures), and the Christians and the Sabians,- any who believe in Allah and the Last Day, and work righteousness, shall have their reward with their Lord; on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.

005.069 Those who believe (in the Qur'an), those who follow the Jewish (scriptures), and the Sabians and the Christians,- any who believe in Allah and the Last Day, and work righteousness,- on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.

022.017 Those who believe (in the Qur'an), those who follow the Jewish (scriptures), and the Sabians, Christians, Magians, and Polytheists,- Allah will judge between them on the Day of Judgment: for Allah is witness of all things.

Note that those verses also contain the Jews, the Christians and the Magians (Zoroastrians).
 

Khadijah, Waraqa and Ubydallah et al.

The Sirah (biography) of Muhammad does not mention about the religion of Khadijah, Muhammad's first wife. However, it is difficult to believe that Khadijah was a 100% polytheist. She was probably deeply influenced by his cousin brother Waraqa, who, as mentioned earlier, was first a Jew, then converted to Christianity. He became a devout Christian and reportedly translated the Gospel in Arabic. His profound knowledge and understanding of the mainstream Christinity, as well as Judaism, must have had profound influence on Khadijah and Muhammad. So it will be quite reasonable to surmise that Khadijah, too, was a follower of Christianity - at least inwardly. We find no reference anywhere that Khadijah had ever prayed to any idol or had attended any polytheist religious ritual; instead, we note (as told previously) that Muhammad was, indeed, a polytheist when he married Khadijah. For 25 years Khadijah was Muhammad's support (financially) and counsellor. It was most likely that Khadijah influenced Muhammad to change his religion -from polytheism to Christianity. Waraqa and Khadijah used to discuss lots of Christian and Jewish stuff with Muhammad that made him think deeply about his belief system at birth (i.e., paganism).

We learn from Sahih Bukhari that Waraqa used to read the Gospel in Arabic. This confirms that the Arabic translation of the Gospel was available during Muhammad's time.

Volume 4, Book 55, Number 605:

Narrated 'Aisha:

The Prophet returned to Khadija while his heart was beating rapidly. She took him to Waraqa bin Naufal who was a Christian convert and used to read the Gospels in Arabic Waraqa asked (the Prophet), "What do you see?" When he told him, Waraqa said, "That is the same angel whom Allah sent to the Prophet) Moses. Should I live till you receive the Divine Message, I will support you strongly."

Not only that Waraqa read the Gospel in Arabic, he also translated Gospel in his own version in Arabic. Sahih Bukhari confirms this:

Please note that this is quite a lengthy Hadis. I have quoted only the relevant part.

Volume 6, Book 60, Number 478:

Narrated Aisha:

... ... .." Khadija then took him to Waraqa bin Naufil, the son of Khadija's paternal uncle. Waraqa had been converted to Christianity in the Pre-lslamic Period and used to write Arabic and write of the Gospel in Arabic as much as Allah wished him to write... ... .

Waraqa even knew how to read and write in Hebrew! Sahih Bukhari confirms this:

Please note that only the part germane to the subject is quoted here.

Volume 1, Book 1, Number 3: Narrated 'Aisha:

... Khadija then accompanied him to her cousin Waraqa bin Naufal bin Asad bin 'Abdul 'Uzza, who, during the PreIslamic Period became a Christian and used to write the writing with Hebrew letters. He would write from the Gospel in Hebrew as much as Allah wished him to write...

The above information, especially those quotes from the Sahih Bukhari will leave one without any doubt that Waraqa, as well as Khadijah were big-time contributors to the compilation of the Qur'an - especially those verses dealing with Christianity and Judaism.

Then came along Ubaydallah, the grandson of Abd al-Muttalib and Muhammad's cousin brother. As Ubaydallah was a Hanif, surely Muhammad had learned a lot of good materials on Hanifism from him. Muslim historians claim that Ubaydallah converted to Muhammad's religion and migrated to Ethiopia, then he left Islam and embraced Christianity and died there as a Christian. So, another contributor of the Christian and Hanif stuff in the Qur'an was definitely Ubaidallah. After Waraqa, Khadijah and Ubaydallah died Muhammad simply incorporated in the Qur'an, what he had heard/learned from them.

We need to mention here two other main contributors to the Qur'an. They were Abdullah b. Salam and Mukhayariq. According to Ibn Ishaq [34] Abdullah b. Salam b. al-Harith was a Jew from B. Qaynuqa who converted to Islam when Muhammad arrived at Medina. Mukhayariq, too, was a Jewish Rabbi from B. Thalaba and he also converted to Islam. Abdullah b. Salam was an authority on Torah, and had undoubtedly contributed to write in the Qur'an the Jewish stuff, especially the Jewish laws.

Here is a brief list of some of the materials in the Qur'an that Muhammad copied/adopted from the Christians, the Jews, the Armenians, the Hindus and the Magians (Zoroastrians):

Tayammum (4:43): Copied from the Jewish Scripture the Talmud

Breathing life into birds (2:260, 3:49, 5:110): Copied from the Coptic books.

Houris, Azazil (44:54): Learned from the foreigners in Mecca.

Harut amd Marut (2:102): From the Armenian books - Harut and Marut are in control of wind and rain.

Allah's throne above water (11:7): From the Jewish tradition.

Malik, the ruler of Hell (43:77): From the Jews.

7 Heavens (2:29, 41:12): Adopted from the Sanskrit Scripture of the Hindus.

Mary giving birth under the trunk of a tree (19:23): Copied from the Gospel of Infancy, an apocryphal Christian Gospel

Infant Jesus talking (3:46, 19:30-31, 19:33): Copied from the Gospel of Infancy.

Description of Paradise and Hell (there are many verses - see the section on Salman, the Persian: Copied from the Magians (Zoroastrians) and the Hindus.

Jesus not killed, Allah lifted up Jesus (3:55, 4:157-158): Copied from the Gospel of Barnabas

The story of Joseph (Sura 12): Copied from the Midrash, a Jewish Scripture.

The story of Solomon and Sheba (21:78-82, 27:17-19, 27:22-23): Copied from the Haggada, a Jewish Scripture.

The original Qur'an is kept in Heaven (43:4, 85:21-22): The Talmud says it is a preserved tablet in Heaven.

Angel of death--Azrail or Azazil, Malaku'l Maut (6:61, 7:37, 32:11): Adopted from the Jewish and the Magian (Zoroastrian) scriptures.

Uncannily though, the Qur'an itself asserts that the infidels of Mecca knew that Muhammad had copied the Qur'an from various sources, especially from the Jewish Scriptures; and that was why Allah had to admonish the polytheists for calling Muhammad a copycat. This is revealed in verse 28:48

028.048 But (now), when the Truth has come to them from Ourselves, they say, "Why are not (Signs) sent to him, like those which were sent to Moses?" Do they not then reject (the Signs) which were formerly sent to Moses? They say: "Two kinds of sorcery, each assisting the other!" And they say: "For us, we reject all (such things)!"

For more examples of plagiarism in the Qur'an (and by Muhammad) one may refer to the books listed in the bibliography.

Muhammad's neighbour was An-Nadr b. al-Harith. He also used to write verses similar to the Qur'an. He was also a very good story-teller--especially of the ancient fables. Whenever, Muhammad gathered people to listen to his tales in the Qur'an an-Nadr would entice the audience of Muhammad with better stories than Muhammad. Due to An-Nadr's excellent proficiency in narrating the anecdotes Muhammad saw his audience disappear. Muhammad considered al-Nadr's act extremely loathsome and had his revenge taken by capturing An-Nadr in the battle of Badr and later beheading him.

Here are references to some selected verses from the Qur'an that tell us that the pagans were very much aware that Muhammad used to tell them ancient stories that they had heard before - Muhammad did not narrated any new fable at all - he simply regurgitated what he had heard from his sources and passing them as Allah's revelations to him. 

The unbelievers consider the Qur'an as the tales of the ancients... 8:31

The unbelievers said that the revelations to Muhammad were the tales from the past... 16:24

Many pagans had heard the story of resurrection from past tales... 23:83

Disbelievers say 'the Qur'an is ancient tales which they had heard before'... 25:5

The unbelievers insist that Qur'an is tales from the past... 27:68

The unbelievers say the Qur'an is nothing but the tales of the ancients... 46:17

The unbelievers termed Muhammad's revelations as tales from the past... 68:15

Ubayy b. Ka'b

Ubay b. Ka'sb was the personal secretary of Muhammad and one of the six collectors of the Qur'an. The other five collectors of the Qur'an, according to ibn Sa'd [35] were:

Muadh ibn Jabal

Abu al-Darda

Zayd ibn Thabit

Sa'd ibn Ubayd

Abu Zayd

Ubayy b. Ka'b was also known as Abu Mundhir. He took the 2nd pledge of Aqba along with other ansars from Medina and was one of the first persons in Medina to accept Islam. He was Muhammad's greatest confidante' and a saviour in troubled times. Whenever Muhammad would forget some verses of the Qur'an or he would want some explanation on some verses he would seek the help of Ubayy. This dependence of Muhammad on Ubayy reflects that he (Ubayy b. Ka'b) was the real writer of Muhammad's dictations, and Ubayy wrote whatever he fancied - subject, of course to Muhammad's approval. Residing in Medina, where a sizable thriving Jewish community lived, he was profoundly knowledgeable in Jewish scriptures and Jewish laws. Most likely, he wrote many of the Medina Suras that deal with Islamic legal provisions. These Medina Suras are not as poetically enchanting as the Meccan Suras. This is because Ubayy b. Ka'b was not really a poet but a politician and a scribe. In fact, he wrote his own version of the Qur'an which he refused to surrender when, during Uthman's time, all versions of the Qur'an, except that of Hafsa's were proscribed and burned. Ubayy b. Ka'b and ibn Masud refused to surrender their Mushaf (Qur'an written on leaves) and kept them in secret. 

We can safely surmise that many Medina Suras were actually written by Ubyy b. Ka'b with the assistance of other scribes of Muhammad.

It is quite fascinating to note that although Gabriel purportedly brought the Qur'anic verses to Muhammad, he saw Gabriel only twice. This is confirmed from this Hadis in Sahih Bukhari:

Volume 6, Book 60, Number 378:

Narrated Masruq:

I said to 'Aisha, "O Mother! Did Prophet Muhammad see his Lord?" Aisha said, "What you have said makes my hair stand on end! Know that if somebody tells you one of the following three things, he is a liar: Whoever tells you that Muhammad saw his Lord, is a liar." Then Aisha recited the Verse:

'No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision. He is the Most Courteous Well-Acquainted with all things.' (6.103) 'It is not fitting for a human being that Allah should speak to him except by inspiration or from behind a veil.' (42.51) 'Aisha further said, "And whoever tells you that the Prophet knows what is going to happen tomorrow, is a liar." She then recited:

'No soul can know what it will earn tomorrow.' (31.34) She added: "And whoever tell you that he concealed (some of Allah's orders), is a liar." Then she recited: 'O Apostle! Proclaim (the Message) which has been sent down to you from your Lord..' (5.67) 'Aisha added. "But the Prophet saw Gabriel in his true form twice."

Of course, this Hadis is confusing and contradictory when we recall that in other ahadith Muhammad claimed that Gabriel visited him many times in the form other human beings (most notably, in the guise of Dhiya al-Kalbi, a handsome merchant of Medina). So, what prevents him in saying that all those Qur'an scribes, including Ubayy b Ka'b, were in fact, Gabriel/s in various forms?

Aisha

Bibi Aisha was Muhammad's most favourite wife. He married her when she was just a child of six years and had sex with her when she was merely nine years old. The youth, the vivacity, the tenderness, the child-like innocence and the childhood exuberance - these were the ingredients that consumed Muhammad's mind in the adoration of Aisha's gullibility. As a child-bride Aisha was completely dependent on Muhammad's maturity. Like any other child of her age she believed in whatever Muhammad told her about his divine inspiration. Muhammad claimed that he used to get revelations from Allah only when he slept with Aisha. Why Gabriel did not bother to visit him when he spent nights with other wives in his harem? This is a question very few Islamic historians have answered. The truth is: Except for Aisha, all other wives of Muhammad were grown up, matured and had experience with the trials, tribulations and crookedness of life in general. Some of them already had grown-up children. It was not so simple for Muhammad to convince this retinue of women about his communication with Allah via Gabriel. They would not believe so easily in Muhammad's made-up stories. Although they were forced to live in his harem, nonetheless, they could not, deep in their mind, endorse all the inane claims of Muhammad. So, evidently Aisha, with her child-like simplicity and innocence became Muhammad's source of divine inspiration! Muhammad was simply playing with a child's mind which tends to believe all sorts of Ghost and Jinn stories, Santa Klaus, winged horses, devils, monsters and all mythological and fictional characters. The following ahadith from Sahih Bukhari confirms that Allah communicated with Muhammad only when he slept with Aisha:

Muhammad used to get divine inspiration only in Aisha's bed...3.47.755

Volume 3, Book 47, Number 755:

Narrated 'Urwa from 'Aisha:

The wives of Allah's Apostle were in two groups. One group consisted of 'Aisha, Hafsa, Safiyya and Sauda; and the other group consisted of Um Salama and the other wives of Allah's Apostle. The Muslims knew that Allah's Apostle loved 'Aisha, so if any of them had a gift and wished to give to Allah's Apostle, he would delay it, till Allah's Apostle had come to 'Aisha's home and then he would send his gift to Allah's Apostle in her home. The group of Um Salama discussed the matter together and decided that Um Salama should request Allah's Apostle to tell the people to send their gifts to him in whatever wife's house he was. Um Salama told Allah's Apostle of what they had said, but he did not reply. Then they (those wives) asked Um Salama about it. She said, "He did not say anything to me." They asked her to talk to him again. She talked to him again when she met him on her day, but he gave no reply. When they asked her, she replied that he had given no reply. They said to her, "Talk to him till he gives you a reply." When it was her turn, she talked to him again. He then said to her, "Do not hurt me regarding Aisha, as the Divine Inspirations do not come to me on any of the beds except that of Aisha." On that Um Salama said, "I repent to Allah for hurting you." Then the group of Um Salama called Fatima, the daughter of Allah's Apostle and sent her to Allah's Apostle to say to him, "Your wives request to treat them and the daughter of Abu Bakr on equal terms." Then Fatima conveyed the message to him. The Prophet said, "O my daughter! Don't you love whom I love?" She replied in the affirmative and returned and told them of the situation. They requested her to go to him again but she refused. They then sent Zainab bint Jahsh who went to him and used harsh words saying, "Your wives request you to treat them and the daughter of Ibn Abu Quhafa on equal terms." On that she raised her voice and abused 'Aisha to her face so much so that Allah's Apostle looked at 'Aisha to see whether she would retort. 'Aisha started replying to Zainab till she silenced her. The Prophet then looked at 'Aisha and said, "She is really the daughter of Abu Bakr."

Divine inspiration came to Muhammad only when he slept with Aisha...5.57.119

Volume 5, Book 57, Number 119:

Narrated Hisham's father:

The people used to send presents to the Prophet on the day of 'Aisha's turn. 'Aisha said, "My companions (i.e. the other wives of the Prophet) gathered in the house of Um Salama and said, "0 Um Salama! By Allah, the people choose to send presents on the day of 'Aisha's turn and we too, love the good (i.e. presents etc.) as 'Aisha does. You should tell Allah's Apostle to tell the people to send their presents to him wherever he may be, or wherever his turn may be." Um Salama said that to the Prophet and he turned away from her, and when the Prophet returned to her (i.e. Um Salama), she repeated the same, and the Prophet again turned away, and when she told him the same for the third time, the Prophet said, "O Um Salama! Don't trouble me by harming 'Aisha, for by Allah, the Divine Inspiration never came to me while I was under the blanket of any woman amongst you except her."

Aisha did not see Gabriel while Muhammad introduced Gabriel to her... 4.54.440

Volume 4, Book 54, Number 440: Narrated Abu Salama:

'Aisha said that the Prophet said to her "O 'Aisha' This is Gabriel and he sends his (greetings) salutations to you." 'Aisha said, "Salutations (Greetings) to him, and Allah's Mercy and Blessings be on him," and addressing the Prophet she said, "You see what I don't see."

Muhammad told Aisha that Gabriel greeted her... 8.74.270

Volume 8, Book 74, Number 270:

Narrated 'Aisha: that the Prophet said to her, "Gabriel sends Salam (greetings) to you." She replied, "Wa 'alaihi-s-Salam Wa Rahmatu-l-lah." (Peace and Allah's Mercy be on him).

The ahdith quoted above clearly tells us how cleverly Muhammad used the innocence and immature mind of a child to claim his divine inspiration. In fact, Muhammad himself composed certain parts of the Qur'an while he slept with Aisha. Sahih Bukhari confirms this:

Muhammad used to recite the Qur'an leaning on a menstruating Aisha... 1.6.296

Volume 1, Book 6, Number 296: Narrated 'Aisha:

The Prophet used to lean on my lap and recite Qur'an while I was in menses.

Even Muhammad's Quran'n writer, Zayd b. Thabit admits that some Qur'anic verses were manipulated. Here is a Hadis from Shahih Bukhari on this:

Some Qur'anic verses were manipulated (verse 33:23)... 5.59.379

Volume 5, Book 59, Number 379: Narrated Zaid bin Thabit:

When we wrote the Holy Quran, I missed one of the Verses of Surat-al-Ahzab which I used to hear Allah's Apostle reciting. Then we searched for it and found it with Khuzaima bin Thabit Al-Ansari. The Verse was:--

'Among the Believers are men Who have been true to Their Covenant with Allah, Of them, some have fulfilled Their obligations to Allah (i.e. they have been Killed in Allah's Cause), And some of them are (still) waiting" (33.23) So we wrote this in its place in the Quran.

The above quoted Hadis tells us that some verses of the Qur'an were written by people other than Muhammad's official Qur'an scribes. Please note that Khuzaima b. Thabit al-Ansari, mentioned in this Hadis was not one of the official Qur'an writers of Muhammad.

In Sahih Muslim we read the following Hadis:

Muhammad used to recite Qur'an while reclining on the lap of a menstruating Aisha... 3. 0591

Book 003, Number 0591:

'A'isha reported: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) would recline in my lap when I was menstruating, and recite the Qur'an.

If those references are not convincing enough to demonstrate that Aisha played a vital role in the authorship of the Qur'an then this Hadis from Sahih Muslim tells us that, Aisha, indeed modified the Qur'anic verses. This Hadis informs us that after Muhammad's death a Qur'an was compiled exclusively for Aisha. Then Aisha dictated to her scribe a verse of the Qur'an claiming that that was how Muhammad used to recite the verse (2:238).

Here is the Hadis from Sahih Muslim:

Book 004, Number 1316:

Abu Yunus, the freed slave of 'A'isha said: 'A'isha ordered me to transcribe a copy of the Qur'an for her and said: When you reach this verse:" Guard the prayers and the middle prayer" (ii. 238), inform me; so when I reached it, I informed her and she gave me dictation (like this): Guard the prayers and the middle prayer and the afternoon prayer, and stand up truly obedient to Allah. 'A'isha said: This is how I have heard from the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him).

From Sahih Bukhari we also learn that the two key Suras, Sura al-Bakara (Sura 2) and Sura an-Nisa (Sura 4) were composed in the presence of Aisha. She also reveals that the first verse was really about Paradise and Hell--contrary to the claims of many Islamic historians that it was the first few verses of Sura al-Alaq (Sura 96). This Hadis also informs us that there were a few versions of the Qur'an, and Aisha had a version with her which was different from other versions. Could it be that Aisha herself added or deleted verses from her version of the Qur'an? Here is the Hadis:

How cleverly revelations were changed to suit the purposes...6.61.515

Volume 6, Book 61, Number 515: Narrated Yusuf bin Mahk:

While I was with Aisha, the mother of the Believers, a person from Iraq came and asked, "What type of shroud is the best?" 'Aisha said, "May Allah be merciful to you! What does it matter?" He said, "O mother of the Believers! Show me (the copy of) your Qur'an," She said, "Why?" He said, "In order to compile and arrange the Qur'an according to it, for people recite it with its Suras not in proper order." 'Aisha said, "What does it matter which part of it you read first? (Be informed) that the first thing that was revealed thereof was a Sura from Al-Mufassal, and in it was mentioned Paradise and the Fire. When the people embraced Islam, the Verses regarding legal and illegal things were revealed. If the first thing to be revealed was: 'Do not drink alcoholic drinks.' people would have said, 'We will never leave alcoholic drinks,' and if there had been revealed, 'Do not commit illegal sexual intercourse, 'they would have said, 'We will never give up illegal sexual intercourse.' While I was a young girl of playing age, the following Verse was revealed in Mecca to Muhammad: 'Nay! But the Hour is their appointed time (for their full recompense), and the Hour will be more grievous and more bitter.' (54.46) Sura Al-Baqara (The Cow) and Surat An-Nisa (The Women) were revealed while I was with him." Then 'Aisha took out the copy of the Qur'an for the man and dictated to him the Verses of the Suras (in their proper order).

Muhammad b. Abdullah

There is very little doubt that Muhammad, himself had composed certain Qur'anic verses. Nonetheless, because he was an illiterate person (as claimed in the Qur'an) he had to engage several scribes to write down what he had invented in his own mind. If one reads the Qur'an carefully one will not fail to discover many such verses which unmistakably show that it is Muhammad who is talking in these verse and not Allah--via His postman Gabriel. Here I have listed a few such verses:

006.104  "Now have come to you, from your Lord, proofs (to open your eyes): if any will see, it will be for (the good of) his own soul; if any will be blind, it will be to his own (harm): I am not (here) to watch over your doings."

The words 'I am not a keeper over you' is clearly words of Muhammad.

006.114 Say: "Shall I seek for judge other than Allah? - when He it is Who hath sent unto you the Book, explained in detail." They know full well, to whom We have given the Book, that it hath been sent down from thy Lord in truth. Never be then of those who doubt.

The words, 'Shall I seek for judge other than Allah?' are undoubtedly Muhammad's words.

Please note that the translator Yusuf Ali deliberately inserted the word "Say" at the outset of this verse. In the original Qur'an there is no "Say" (Kul in Arabic). Here are the translations by Pickthal and Shakir, other two authoritative Qur'an translators.

PICKTHAL: Shall I seek other than Allah for judge, when He it is Who hath revealed unto you (this) Scripture, fully explained? Those unto whom We gave the Scripture (aforetime) know that it is revealed from thy Lord in truth. So be not thou (O Muhammad) of the waverers.
SHAKIR: Shall I then seek a judge other than Allah? And He it is Who has revealed to you the Book (which is) made plain; and those whom We have given the Book know that it is revealed by your Lord with truth, therefore you should not be of the disputers.

And here is the transliteration:

114. Afaghayra Allahi abtaghee hakaman wahuwa allathee anzala ilaykumu alkitaba mufassalan waallatheena ataynahumu alkitaba yaAAlamoona annahu munazzalun min rabbika bialhaqqi fala takoonanna mina almumtareena

019.009  He said: "So (it will be) thy Lord saith, 'that is easy for Me: I did indeed create thee before, when thou hadst been nothing!"

Here an angel (or Muhammad?) is talking not Allah.

019.064 (The angels say:) "We descend not but by command of thy Lord: to Him belongeth what is before us and what is behind us, and what is between: and thy Lord never doth forget,-

Here Gabriel (or Muhammad?) is talking and not Allah.

 037.164 (Those ranged in ranks say): "Not one of us but has a place appointed;
 037.165 "And we are verily ranged in ranks (for service);
 037.166 "And we are verily those who declare (Allah's) glory!"

 Here the angel (or Muhammad?) is talking and not Allah

051.050 Hasten ye then (at once) to Allah: I am from Him a Warner to you, clear and open!

Here an angel (or Muhammad?) is talking and not Allah.

053.002 Your Companion is neither astray nor being misled.

Muhammad is not being misled: isn't Muhammad talking here?

 070.040 Now I do call to witness the Lord of all points in the East and the West that We can certainly-
 070.041Substitute for them better (men) than they; And We are not to be defeated (in Our Plan).

Isn't Muhammad talking here?

086.017 Therefore grant a delay to the Unbelievers: Give respite to them gently (for awhile).

Isn't Muhammad talking here?

The most important of verses in the Qur'an, that is Sura al-Fateha (Sura 1) is definitely Muhammad's (or some other poet's) creation. Please read this Sura carefully:

001.001 In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.
001.002 Praise be to Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the worlds;
 001.003 Most Gracious, Most Merciful;
 001.004 Master of the Day of Judgment.
 001.005 Thee do we worship, and Thine aid we seek.
 001.006 Show us the straight way,
 001.007 The way of those on whom Thou hast bestowed Thy Grace, those whose (portion) is not wrath, and who go not astray. 

Readers should carefully note that there is no mention of "Say" (Kul in Arabic) at the beginning of this verse. So, who do you think is praying to Allah in this Sura? Is Allah asking himself (Allah) to pray to Himself? What a ridiculous situation - come to think of it! This conundrum is immediately resolved when we realise that it was none but Muhammad who is asking his followers to pray to Allah. Chronologically, this Sura is one of the first 5 Suras (it is the 5th, or 6th. according to some) of the Qur'an. This was a time when Muhammad was just starting out preaching his own brand of 'Hanifism' (Islam) and he composed this verse (some say by imitating some Jewish liturgy) for his handful of followers.

If any evidence is needed to prove that Muhammad had, indeed composed certain verses of the Qur'an this Ummul Qur'an (Sura Fateha), the seven most oft repeated verses stand out as the glaring example of that confirmation.

And how did Muhammad behave when people wanted to see how Allah's revelations came to him? Here is a Hadis from Sahih Muslim that tells us clearly that Umar used to shelter (read hide) Muhammad under a piece of cloth cover and Muhammad used to sleep, snorting like a camel. Some people were curious and peeped through the covering and this was what they saw:

During revelation Umar used to cover Muhammad with a piece of cloth and Muhammad snorted like a camel ... 7.2654

Book 007, Number 2654:

Ya'la b. Umayya reported on the authority of his father (Allah be pleased with them) that a person came to the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) as he was at Ji'rana and he (the person) had been putting on a cloak which was perfumed, or he (the narrator) said: There was a trace of yellowness on it. He said (to the Holy Prophet): What do you command me to do during my Umra? (It was at this juncture) that the revelation came to the Apostle of Allah (way peace be upon him) and he was covered with a cloth, and Ya'la said: Would that I see revelation coming to the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him). He (Hadrat 'Umar) said: Would it please you to see the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) receiving the revelations 'Umar lifted a corner of the cloth and I looked at him and he was emitting a sound of snorting. He (the narrator) said: I thought it was the sound of a camel. When he was relieved of this he said: Where is he who asked about Umra? When the person came, the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) said: Wash out the trace of yellowness, or he said: the trace of perfume and put off the cloak and do in your 'Umra what you do in your Hajj.

That was how Allah talked to Muhammad--through the 'bleating' of a camel!

A blind man corrects the Qur'an and Allah!

Lastly, as a final proof that Muhammad corrected/inserted/deleted the contents of a verse as situation demanded and/or as people requested, here is the example of Ibn Umm Maktum, a blind man of Mecca. He requested Muhammad to correct a verse to exempt a blind person to join in a Jihad. This blind man used to listen to Muhammad's preaching and wanted to discuss with him certain aspects of Islam. However, Muhammad, at first ignored him, but later he became very remorseful for neglecting this blind man. So Allah reproached Muhammad in Sura al-Abasa (Sura 80, chronological order 24) or 'He Frowned'. Ibn Umm Maktum eventually converted to Islam and became a very close companion of Muhammad. When Muhammad exhorted the superiority of those who participates in Jihad or Holy war this blind man was reluctant to participate in such fighting and wanted an exemption. During the writing of this verse (4:95) Muhammad forgot about the blind man. So Ibn Umm Maktum reminded him of his case. Accordingly, Muhammad quickly changed his verse. 

Here are two ahadith from Sahih Bukhari on how Ibn Umm Maktum changed Allah's mind! 

4:95 Muhammad called for Zayd to write his revelations...6.60.117 

Volume 6, Book 60, Number 117: Narrated Al-Bara:

When the Verse: "Not equal are those of the believers who sit (at home)" (4.95) was revealed, Allah Apostle called for Zaid who wrote it. In the meantime Ibn Um Maktum came and complained of his blindness, so Allah revealed: "Except those who are disabled (by injury or are blind or lame..." etc.) (4.95)

Here is another version of the said Hadis:

Muhammad quickly changed a verse to accommodate the request of a blind man joining a Jihad (4:95)... 6.61.512

Volume 6, Book 61, Number 512: Narrated Al-Bara:

There was revealed: 'Not equal are those believers who sit (at home) and those who strive and fight in the Cause of Allah.' (4.95)

The Prophet said, "Call Zaid for me and let him bring the board, the inkpot and the scapula bone (or the scapula bone and the ink pot)."' Then he said, "Write: 'Not equal are those Believers who sit..", and at that time 'Amr bin Um Maktum, the blind man was sitting behind the Prophet . He said, "O Allah's Apostle! What is your order For me (as regards the above Verse) as I am a blind man?" So, instead of the above Verse, the following Verse was revealed:

'Not equal are those believers who sit (at home) except those who are disabled (by injury or are blind or lame etc.) and those who strive and fight in the cause of Allah.' (4.95)

And here is a similar Hadis from Sahih Muslim

Book 020, Number 4676:

It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Ishaq, that he heard Bara' talking about the Qur'anic verse:" Those who sit (at home) from among the believers and those who go out for Jihad in the way of Allah are not aqual" (iv. 95). (He said that) the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) ordered Zaid (to write the verse). He brought a shoulder-blade (of a slaughtered camel) and inscribed it (the verse) thereon. The son of Umm Maktum complained of his blindness to the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him). (At this) descended the revelation:" Those of the believers who sit (at home) without any trouble (illness, incapacity, disability)" (iv. 95). The tradition has been handed down through two other chains of transmitters.

Conclusion

The Holy Qur'an is not authored by almighty Allah. Allah, if He ever existed, must be busy with many other important matters. He has no time to write an incoherent, ambiguous, erroneous scripture to guide mankind. A few ambitious and opportunistic persons, in the name of Allah gathered together under the tutelage of Muhammad to construct the Qur'an by adapting, amending and outright plagiarizing other scriptures and heresy of the time. This they did to advance and perpetuate their political ambition to dominate the then Arabian peninsula, and later, many other peaceful countries. Qur'an is the handiwork of a few cunning persons - an attempt to fool the gullible world - a deliberate effort to impose Arab superiority. All Muslims must learn the Arabic language to be able to recite the Qur'an and to offer prayers, adopt Arabic name and conform to Islamic (read Bedouin Arab) culture. This is naked Arab imperialism in the guise of propagating the message of the 'Holy Qur'an'. Any Islamic Paradise will confirm to what I have written just now. When the undeniable truth about the authorship of the Qur'an and its hidden scheme is clearly understood, this Arab imperialism by the stealth stands out to be the main agenda of the Qur'an.

[ Part 1 - Part 2 - Appendix ]


Footnotes for Part 3

[31] W.St. Clair Tisdal, The Sources of Islam, The Orgins of the Koran, pp.236-237

[32] Hughes Dictionary of Islam, p.551

[33] Ibid

[34] Ibn Ishaq, p.239

[35] ibn sa'd, vol.i, p.457


Abul Kasem is an Bengali ex-Muslim and academic. He has contributed in Leaving Islam - Apostates Speak Out and Beyond Jihad - Critical Voices from Inside and Why We Left Islam.. He has also written extensively on Islam in various websites and is the author of five e-Books: A Complete Guide to Allah, Root of Terrorism ala Islamic Style, Sex and Sexuality in Islam, Who Authored the Quran? and Women in Islam. Mr. Kasem leaves in Sydney, Australia. He can be contacted at abul88@hotmail.com.

 
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