The Root of Terrorism a la
20 Nov, 2005
Third Raid at Dumat al-Jandal: Forced Jizya on Ukaydir by Khalid b. Walid-March - April, 631
After the withdrawal from Tabuk, and after the signing of a peace treaty with a few non-Muslim tribes, Muhammad felt secure. His terror tactics had been immensely successful, and he found no reason to move further. The only one he feared now was Ukaydir ibn Abd al-Malik al-Kindi, the Christian prince of Dumat al-Jandal (Duma). Without any firm evidence, Muhammad spread a rumour that Ukaydir was preparing to launch a treacherous attack on him. So, while readying the Muslim soldiers to return to Medina from Tabuk, he sent Khalid ibn Walid with five hundred cavalrymen to deal with this threat. The rest of the Muslim army were to return to Medina.
Khalid seized this opportunity and attacked Duma. He met with very little resistance in the city. Its gates, however, remained tightly closed. When Khaild attacked Ukaydir's fort, the latter was at the roof of his fortress with his wife. Ukaydir's brother, Hasan, hearing some noise from the wild cows, mounted his horse and went out to hunt them. Khalid seized Hassan and killed him as he (Hasan) returned home from the hunting trip. Then he threatened to kill Ukaydir, unless the gates of the city were flung open. Ukaydir yielded. The Muslim army entered the fort and caught Ukaydir. Khalid took the gold-brocaded gown of Hassan and sent that to Muhammad through a courier. On receiving this golden gown, Muhammad slighted these royal outfits by saying, that Sa'd b. Muadh's napkin in paradise was better than that. Then the Muslim army plundered the city of Dumah. They took two thousand camels, eight hundred sheep and four hundred armoury suits and a huge cache of arms. Khalid then returned to Tabuk with the booty, Ukaydir and another of Ukaydir's brothers, Musad. When Khalid brought Ukaydir and his brother to Muhammad, the latter spared their lives on condition of payment of Jizya tax. Ukaydir and his brother Musad were released and they returned to their village kingdom. Sunaan Abu Dawud records that Muhammad spared Ukaydir's life in exchange of Jizya.
Book 19, Number 3031:
Narrated Anas ibn Malik ; Uthman ibn Abu Sulayman:
The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) sent Khalid ibn al-Walid to Ukaydir of Dumah. He was seized and they brought him to him (i.e. the Prophet). He spared his life and made peace with him on condition that he should pay jizyah (poll-tax).
As recorded in Sahih Bukhari 1.2.24, on this occasion Muhammad also declared that he had been ordered to fight the non-Muslims.
Volume 1, Book 2, Number 24:
Narrated Ibn 'Umar:
Allah's Apostle said: "I have been ordered (by Allah) to fight against the people until they testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is Allah's Apostle, and offer the prayers perfectly and give the obligatory charity, so if they perform a that, then they save their lives an property from me except for Islamic laws and then their reckoning (accounts) will be done by Allah."
The Destruction of Wadd at Dumat al-Jandal by Khalid ibn Walid - April, 631CE
Wadd, representing manly power, was the statue of a huge man, covered with two robes, clothed with one and cloaked with the other, carrying a sword on his waist and a bow on his shoulder. It was probably located in one of the palatial buildings of Duma. When Khalid b. Walid was at Duma, Muhammad gave him instructions to destroy this beautiful statue. Khalid proceeded to demolish the statue but faced resistance from B.Abd Wadd and B. Amir al-Ajdar who fought to defend the statue. In the fight that ensued, Khalid defeated them; then he smashed the statute into pieces and demolished the shrine. A man of B. Abd Wadd was killed. His grief stricken mother fell over his body and died.
The Destruction of an Opposition Mosque at Dhu Awan by Muhammad - April, 631CE
Proceeding further from Tabuk on his way to Medina, Muhammad halted at Dhu Awan at Quba (about 4 kms. from Medina), an hour's journey from Medina. There, an opposition Muslim group had built a mosque. Previously, while Muhammad was making preparations for the march to Tabuk, this group of Muslims approached Muhammad and said, "O Messenger of God, we have built a mosque for the sick and needy and for rainy and cold nights, and we would like you to visit us and pray for us." Because Muhammad was too busy with his preparations for Tabuk, he excused himself from visiting this mosque but assured the dissident group that he would call on their mosque while returning to Medina (from Tabuk).
When Muhammad halted at Dhu Awan, he accused its builders of being unjust and sent a band of Jihadists to burn and destroy the newly constructed mosque. He said to his band of destroyers, "Go to this mosque whose owners are unjust people and destroy and burn it." His band of arsonists entered the mosque and set fire to it when it was filled with people assembled for the evening prayer. The worshippers dispersed in terror. Allah promptly sent down verse 9:107, 110, justifying the destruction of opposition mosques. To further validate his gutting of this mosque, Muhammad concocted the story that he suspected that the builders of the 'Mosque of Dissent' were planning to assassinate him.
Then he extolled the virtue of the first mosque (known as Masjid Takwa) that was built by him at Quba when he migrated to Medina and where he had asked his followers to pray. This instruction is written in the Qur'an in verses 9:108-109.
After the Jihadists returned to Medina, some of them started selling their arms, thinking that Jihad had ended; but Muhammad stopped that saying, "A party of my people will continue fighting for truth till the emergence of Antichrist." He also claimed that Allah had ordered him to fight the infidels until the entire world is converted to Islam. Here is a Hadith from Sahih Bukhari on this:
Volume 1, Book 2, Number 24:
Narrated Ibn 'Umar:
Allah's Apostle said: "I have been ordered (by Allah) to fight against the people until they testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is Allah's Apostle, and offer the prayers perfectly and give the obligatory charity, so if they perform that, then they save their lives an property from me except for Islamic laws and then their reckoning (accounts) will be done by Allah."
Destruction of al-Lat at Taif by Abu Sufyan b. Harb - April, 631CE
Even after ten months since Muhammad lifted his siege on the Thaqif at Taif, the people there still practiced idolatry. As stated in an earlier part of this series, Urwa b. Masud, a Thaqif and the Quraysh negotiator at Hudaibiya went to Yemen to train on the use of war machines. On his return he found that all Meccans, except the tribes of Taif (i.e., Thaqif) had submitted to Islam. Realising the potential material gain to be had, he went to Medina and embraced Islam in the presence of Muhammad. Then Urwa wanted to return to Taif and invited his people to enter Islam too. Muhammad cautioned him saying that his people would fight him viciously because of his conversion to Islam, but Urwah was very confident that he would prevail.
After arriving at Taif in the evening, Urwa announced his conversion in public and invited other Taif people to follow suit. Ascending the upper balcony of his palace, he called out the cry for prayer (Adhaan) at the top of his voice. The Taif people were greatly angered by his audacity, and showered arrows at him from all sides. He was gravely wounded in the arm and later died of this wound. When the news of his death reached Muhammad, he greatly praised Urwa for his bravery. Muhammad compared him to the prophet Yasin, who was slain by his people.
The Thaqif people were pleased at the killing of Urwa, but their joy was very short-lived. They were now continuously harassed by attack from B. Hawazin under Malik These ferocious attacks cut off the cattle in the field, and destroyed the wells and pasture lands. Their resources started to dwindle fast and soon they did not have enough strength to fight back the Muslim Arabs surrounding them. So they sent a deputation of six Thaqif chiefs with fifteen or twenty followers to Medina to Muhammad. The leader of this delegation was Abd Yalil b. Amr b. Umayr. They started their journey a fortnight after Muhammad's return to Medina from Tabuk. When the Taif party arrived at Medina, Muhammad gave them a cordial reception and pitched a tent near the mosque for their accommodation. The Thaqif delegates had no choice but to convert to Islam before starting to negotiate with Muhammad.
A treaty was then drafted between the Thaqif people and Muhammad. During this stage they requested Muhammad to not demolish the idol of al-Lat for three years; Muhammad promptly declined their request.
Then they reduced the time to a year but Muhammad refused-then for a month; still, Muhammad rejected their plea. The Thaqif people simply wanted a little time to prepare their women folk to bear the abject sorrow of demolishing al-Lat. The delegation then requested that they be exempted from prayer and from destroying their idols with their own hands. Allah sent down verse 17:73 warning Muhammad not to give any concession on prayers. So, on the question of prayer, Muhammad was stiff; on the matter of using their own hands to destroy the idol, Muhammad agreed that they would be exempt from it. Thus, the Thaqif people were compelled to embrace Islam on Muhammad's terms. Nevertheless, Rodinson writes that Muhammad did make some compromise on observing the fast, i.e., he made fasting less strict for the Thaqif people. Even though they were very distraught, they said, "O Muhammad, we will give in to you on this issue even though it is demeaning." Curiously, the treaty with the Thaqif people mentions Muhammad as Muhammad ibn Abdallah and not Muhammad the Messenger of Allah.
After the Thaqif delegation left Muhammad, he sent Abu Sufyan b. Harb and al-Mughirah b. Shubah to destroy al-Lat. Al-Lat, a more recent idol than Manat, stood at Taif. She was a cubic rock. When they arrived at Taif, al-Mughirah demolished the idol of al-Lat with a pickaxe, then he burnt the temple to the ground. After the obliteration of al-Lat and her temple, al-Mughirah warned that all the Thaqif people will be killed if they retaliated. The women of Thaqif came out wailing bitterly and lamenting with their heads uncovered. After the idol of al-Lat was demolished, al-Mughirah took from under its foundation its jewellery and ornaments that were made of gold and onyx and sent them to Abu Sufyan. Muhammad instructed Abu Sufyan to pay off, from this loot, the debts of Urwah b. Masud and Urwa's brother, al-Aswad b. Masud.
With the destruction of al-Lat and the conversion of Thaqif, the subjugation of Hejaz to Islam was now complete.
The Genocide at Jurash, Yemen by Surad b. Abd Allah - October, 631CE
Muhammad now envisaged the conquest of entire southern Arabia, especially Yemen. His previous attempts on this part of Arabia were not successful. Now that the entire Hejaz was under the grip of Islam, he commissioned Surad b. Abd Allah to attack Yemen.
Having secured the authority from Muhammad to fight (i.e., to kill) the polytheists and having been provided with an army to do so, Surad b. Abd Allah al-Azdi made an attack at Jurash, a closed city, inhabited by the Yemeni tribes. Surad's old enemy Khattam had taken refuge at this palace/fort. When the Yemenis learnt that the Muslim army was marching to strike, they shut themselves up in their city. The siege lasted for a month but Yemeni tribes would not come out of their sanctuary. So, Surad pretended to retreat. The Jurash inhabitants, thinking that the danger was over, came out from their refuge. The Muslims attacked them from behind with ruthless viciousness and inflicted heavy casualties.
Before this attack came to the Jurash people, they had sent a team of two men to Muhammad for talks on peace. While they were at Medina, they learned that Surad had been despatched to Jurash but the team stayed in Medina while Surad was conducting the genocide there (Jurash). So, while with Muhammad, they enquired him of what was going on with their people at their land. Muhammad told the team that the Jurash people were being slaughtered like camels. Then Abu Bakr or Uthman advised the team of Jurash to implore Muhammad to save their people. They did accordingly, and Muhammad prayed to Allah for their people. When this team returned to Jurash they were astonished at the scale of pogrom by the Muslims.
With fear and terror the delegation of Jurash then returned to Muhammad and embraced Islam.
Plunder and Forced Conversion of B. Nakha at Mudhij, Yemen by Ali - October, 631
Then Ali led a campaign with three hundred horsemen to Yemen against the B. Nakha, residing at Mudhij, announcing to them an ultimatum to accept Islam or face death. This was the first terror raid in Yemen with cavalry by Ali. This was also the first army of Hejaz led by Ali ever sent to conquer Yemen. Hitherto, it was always the Yemen army that was sent to conquer the Hejaz. At first, the tribe refused to accept Islam. A battle ensued and Ali's army killed twenty enemy men. In the end the B. Nakha lost the fight, surrendered to Ali and embraced Islam. Some other tribes of the Mudhaj in Yemen also followed them. The Muslim raiders took hold of anything they could catch---booty, spoils, women, children, camels and goats. Ali returned with the booty and on reaching Mecca, joined Muhammad in his last pilgrimage.
During this raid and plunder, Ali (Muhammad's son-in-law) engaged in sex with captive women and Muhammad was quite pleased with his son-in-law's lasciviousness. Here is a Hadith from Sahih Bukhari on the moral rectitude of Hazrat Ali:
Volume 5, Book 59, Number 637:
The Prophet sent 'Ali to Khalid to bring the Khumus (of the booty) and I hated Ali, and 'Ali had taken a bath (after a sexual act with a slave-girl from the Khumus). I said to Khalid, "Don't you see this (i.e. Ali)?" When we reached the Prophet I mentioned that to him. He said, "O Buraida! Do you hate Ali?" I said, "Yes." He said, "Do you hate him, for he deserves more than that from the Khumlus."
The B. Nakha then surrendered themselves to Muadh, Muhammad's envoy in Yemen. Two hundred of them set out to tender a personal allegiance to Muhammad. They reached Medina at the beginning of the eleventh year of Hijra. This was the last deputation received by Muhammad. When Muhammad sent Muadh as the governor of Yemen he told him not to plunder the Yemeni people if they wilfully surrendered to Islam; otherwise, he was to take the best of their possessions. Here is a Hadith from Sahih Bukhari containing Muhammad's instruction to Muadh:
Volume 2, Book 24, Number 573:
Narrated Abu Ma'bad,:
(the slave of Ibn Abbas) Allah's Apostle said to Muadh when he sent him to Yemen, "You will go to the people of the Scripture. So, when you reach there, invite them to testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah, and that Muhammad is His Apostle. And if they obey you in that, tell them that Allah has enjoined on them five prayers in each day and night. And if they obey you in that tell them that Allah has made it obligatory on them to pay the Zakat which will be taken from the rich among them and given to the poor among them. If they obey you in that, then avoid taking the best of their possessions, and be afraid of the curse of an oppressed person because there is no screen between his invocation and Allah."
Forced Conversion of Hamdan People at Yemen by Ali - December, 631CE
With the successes of wanton genocide at Jurash and the forced conversion at Mudhij in Yemen, Muhammad now wanted to bring under the sword of Islam all the tribes living in Yemen. He, at first, sent Khalid b. Walid to convert all the people of Yemen. Khaild spent six months there inviting them to Islam but with very little success. So, Muhammad asked Khalid to return and sent Ali as his replacement. This was Ali's second venture in Yemen. When Ali arrived in the city of Hamdan in Yemen, he offered his morning prayer there; people gathered around him; Ali lined up his soldiers in a row and read out the letter from Muhammad, commanding the people there to enter Islam or face the sword. Having heard of the scale of genocide at Jurash, all the terrified Hamdan people embraced Islam on the same day. When Muhammad received the news of conversion of Hamdan people through fear and coercion, he offered peace to them. Soon after the conversion of the Hamdan people, the rest of Yemen followed suit.
Forced Conversion of Najran at North Yemen by Khalid b. Walid - February, 632CE
This raid took place towards the last days of Muhammad, when there prevailed relative "Islamic peace" in Medina. Muhammad sent Khalid to Najran, in north Yemen against B. al-Harith b. Ka'b to call on the people of Najran (Christians, idolaters and those not in treaty with Muhammad) to embrace Islam or fight the Muslims. Najran was famous for its largely prosperous Christian community. There was also a sizeable number of pagans who lived amicably with their Christian brethren. All the Najran people belonged to the tribe of B. al-Harith. On arriving at Najran, Khalid issued an ultimatum, giving the residents three days notice to submit to Islam or face death.
He proclaimed, "O people, accept Islam, and you will be safe."
The Najran people were now forced to accept Islam. Khalid stayed with them teaching them the Qur'an and Sunnah.of Muhammad.Then Khalid wrote to Muhammad informing him of the acceptance of Islam by B. al-Harith people under terror.
Muhammad was pleased that B. al-Harith people accepted Islam through intimidation and without fighting. He wrote to Khalid to return to Medina and to bring along a delegation of B. al-Harith. When Khalid arrived with the delegates, Muhammad asked Khalid who those people were because they looked more like Indians. When Khalid informed the messenger of Allah that they were Yemeni Arabs, Muhammad admonished them repeatedly for resorting to fighting on previous occasions. He said, "Had Khalid b. al-Walid not written to me that you had surrendered and had not fought, I would have thrown your heads under your feet."
B. al-Harith people were the sons of slaves and had never committed injustice or fought unjustly. But Muhammad insisted that they did fight back in the pre-Islamic days. On this they replied, "O Messenger of God, we used to overpower those who fought us because we were the sons of slaves and were united, not divided, and never committed an injustice against anyone." Muhammad agreed on what they said and he appointed Qays b. al-Husayn as their leader.
Muhammad appointed Amr b. Hazm al-Ansari to instruct the B. al-Harith on Islam and to collect Zakat from them. He wrote a few instructions for Amr before he (Amr) set out for Najran: To fulfil contracts (5:1), to fear Allah (16:128), none but the purified shall touch the Qur'an (56:79), be severe with those who are unjust and inform people about the good news on paradise (11:18) and warn them of hell-fire, forbid people from praying in one garment unless it be garment whose ends could be doubled over the shoulders, can't wrap oneself in one garment, can't appeal to tribes and kinsmen when there is a dispute but appeal only to Allah, those who appeal to tribes and kinsmen should be put to the sword, perform ablution thoroughly with plentiful of water, offer prayers at appointed times, Ghusl (bath) is obligatory for prayers in congregation, the tax collector can take one-fifth of booty and Zakat from landed property-one-tenth from the land watered by streams and rain, one-twentieth from land watered by a leather bucket; two sheep for every ten camels, a cow for every forty cows and a bull or a cow calf for every thirty cows; one sheep for every forty sheep at pasture.
Another version of this raid says that al-Harith was a Christian Bishop who refused to accept Islam. So, a delegate of them came to Medina to discuss theological matters. It is said that the Muslims were shocked and dazzled by the richness of the bishop of B. al-Harith when he visited Medina. Allah revealed verse 3:61 admonishing those who dispute with His Messenger In the end, al-Harith and his people decided to pay the Jizya tax to escape regular Muslim invasion in their territory. Muhammad accepted their decision and the Christian delegate returned to Najran.
The Jizya tax was set as one dinar(or its substitute in clothes) for every adult, male or female, free or slave. If the Jews and the Christians refuse to pay Jizya tax then they become the enemy of Allah (so, liable to be killed).
Terror One Hundred
Destruction of Idol at Dhul Khalasa in Yemen and Forced Conversion of Various Tribes by Jarir ibn Abd Allah - April, 632CE
Having witnessed, through terror, plunder and wanton genocide the ferocious power of Islam, many Yemeni tribes had no choice but to submit themselves to Muhammad and Islam. Amongst the Yemeni tribes who readily surrendered to Islam were the B. Murad, B. Zubaid, inhabiting the sea coast of Yemen and B. Kahlan who lived in Khaulan and B. Bajila. Muhammad sent Jarir ibn Abd Allah to Dhul Khalasa and forced the B. Bajila to destroy, with their own hands their famous idol of there. This idol of B. Bajilah was known as the Ka'ba of Yemen was a white quartz idol that stood between Mecca and Sa'na. The invading Muslims destroyed the temple, set it on fire and killed a hundred B. Bajila men including the custodian of the idol temple. Another two hundred men, belonging to B. Qubafah were also slaughtered. Other tribe of Yemen that was forced to submit to Muhammad was B. Jorsh. Sahih Bukhari narrates this genocide and plunder this way:
Volume 5, Book 59, Number 641:
In the Pre-lslamic Period of Ignorance there was a house called Dhu-l-Khalasa or Al-Ka'ba Al-Yamaniya or Al-Ka'ba Ash-Shamiya. The Prophet said to me, "Won't you relieve me from Dhu-l-Khalasa?" So I set out with one-hundred-and-fifty riders, and we dismantled it and killed whoever was present there. Then I came to the Prophet and informed him, and he invoked good upon us and Al-Ahmas (tribe).
A similar Hadith is narrated in 5.59.642 of Sahih Bukhari
After completing the genocide at Dhu Khalasa, while Jarrir was returning to Medina, a messenger brought the news of that Muhammad had died. This is recorded in Sahih Bukhari in Hadith 5.59.645.
This authentic compilation of the lengthy history of Islamic propagation has proved beyond a shadow of doubt that the central doctrine behind all the mindless terror, murder, and genocide carried out by the Jihadists of today is deeply rooted in the belief system of Islam. It is foolhardy and rather too simplistic to assume that the war on Islamic terror is not a war with Islam. A good Muslim (i.e. a Muslim by the Book) is a terrorist---it is the main message of the Qur'an, the holiest book of Islamic faith. Read the Qur'an from the beginning to the end, several times, and you will understand why the Islamic terrorists do what they are doing today all over the world. Read all the chapters of this book one more time and you will, for sure, grasp a true picture of the messenger of Allah, his aims, objectives and most importantly, his plans, methods, actions and all the logistics necessary to achieve the goal that he had set for the Muslims to achieve; that is, to make Islam the world religion even at the cost of the death of millions of lives.
A Muslim who does not resort to Jihad (read violence, terror and murder) in order to force Islam on the world population is not a Muslim at all. Most Muslims do not follow Islam by the Book (Qur'an); and that is why they are not terrorists. Once they come to learn the 'real Islam'-- the Islam preached and practiced by Muhammad -- they get a shock, bewildered and confused-they just search where could they find the 'peaceful, tolerant, non-violent' Islam that they always thought the religion to be. Alas! There is no peace in Islam, there is no tolerance in Islam; there is no compromise or negotiation in Islam. There is only 'submission' in Islam-the submission to the sword of Islam, as Muhammad said so eloquently, 'Paradise is under the shades of swords (Sahih Bukhari; 4.52.73).'
Let us not kid ourselves; the politically correct world may not be at war with Islam, but surely, Islam itself is at perpetual with the civilized world. In part one of this treatise it was mentioned that this war of Islam against the entire civilized world had been declared during the second pledge of Aqaba, when the nascent community of the Jihadists declared they were ready to fight and give up their lives for the protection of Muhammad and his Islam. The Islamists will not end this war until all people on earth surrender (read submit) to Islam, and, if necessary, by the sword (read war) and a wide slaughter. Imagine what will happen if the 'true Muslims' are able to stockpile a few nuclear bombs or biological and chemical weapons and their means of delivery. Nothing will stop them from dropping those bombs in the Western capitals, such as New York, Washington, London, Paris, Madrid, Brussels-..and so on.
Please consider the economy of Jihad and Islamic terror. Please think how cheaply the Islamists run their terror operations, how inexpensively they buy the lives of young Jihadists to be sacrificed to commit un-imaginable terror and murder. It costs them virtually next to nothing, save for their training and the logistics, to recruit these live terrorists, and despatch them on terror missions. Please reflect on what motivates these terrorists to do what they do---it is none other than the Qur'an and ahadith. Islamic terrorism emanates from the teachings and practices of Muhammad. This book has proved this beyond any doubt by citing episode after episode, and by pointing out many uncanny similarities between the Islamic terrorism of today and those of Muhammad's time. The Jihadists of today are following the exact footsteps of Muhammad---make no mistake on this. While the world is spending billions of dollars to fight Islamic terrorism militarily, doesn't it make more sense to spend a fraction of that billion to unmask the fascistic face of Islam and the doctrine of terrorism that is an integral part of it? Let the vast majority of innocent Muslims who are not terrorists and who do not have an iota of what Islam is all about get this shocking message that Islam is not what they always thought it to be---that is, a peaceful religion. The sooner they realise this appalling truth, the sooner they will become a part of the civilised world and be respected. So long as they are in denial, they will, for sure, be a community despised and looked upon with suspicion. Let the Muslims themselves start fighting Islamic terrorism by its root.
Abul Kasem is an Bengali ex-Muslim and academic. He has contributed in Leaving Islam - Apostates Speak Out and Beyond Jihad - Critical Voices from Inside and Why We Left Islam.. He has also written extensively on Islam in various websites and is the author of five e-Books: A Complete Guide to Allah, Root of Terrorism ala Islamic Style, Sex and Sexuality in Islam, Who Authored the Quran? and Women in Islam. Mr. Kasem leaves in Sydney, Australia. He can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org.